China Pinks

From Thomas Jefferson Encyclopedia

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[[Image:chinensis2.jpg|thumb|right|Dianthus chinensis]] [[Image:chinensis2.jpg|thumb|right|Dianthus chinensis]]
-'''Common Name:''' China Pinks, Indian Pinks<ref>This section is based on Peggy Cornett, CHP Information Sheet.</ref>+'''Common Name:''' China Pinks, Indian Pinks<ref>This section is based on a Center for Historic Plant Information Sheet.</ref>
'''Scientific Name:''' ''Dianthus chinensis'' variety '''Scientific Name:''' ''Dianthus chinensis'' variety
-'''Description:''' Summer flowering annual or short-lived perennial; Large single flowers with fringed petals in colorful patterns of pink and crimson to white shades+[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] first planted “China Pinks” at [[Shadwell]], his birthplace, in 1767 and again at Monticello in 1807.<ref>[[Short Title List|Betts, ''Garden Book'']], 4 and 335. [http://www.thomasjeffersonpapers.org/cfm/search.cfm?start=1&hi=on&user=&tag=text&archive=garden&noimages=&query=Pinks&submit=Search Manuscript and transcription] at the Massachusetts Historical Society. See also Edwin M. Betts, Hazlehurst Bolton Perkins, and Peter J. Hatch, [http://tjportal.monticello.org/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=3074 ''Thomas Jefferson's Flower Garden at Monticello''], 3rd ed. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986), 59.</ref> Also known as Indian Pinks, the species was introduced from China and has been cultivated in Europe and America since the early 18th century. (Lady Skipwith and John Bartram mention this plant in the first half of the 18th century.)<ref>Joan Parry Dutton, [http://tjportal.monticello.org/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=1439 ''Plants of Colonial Williamsburg''] (Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg, 1979), 130-131.</ref>
-'''Size:''' Bushy plants grow 6 inches high and 8 inches wide+Jefferson grew other various types of ''Dianthus'' at Monticello in his 1807 [[Oval Flower Beds]]. He lists the Carnation (''Dianthus caryophyllus'') and Sweet William (''Dianthus barbatus'').<ref>See Edwin M. Betts, Hazlehurst Bolton Perkins, and Peter J. Hatch, [http://tjportal.monticello.org/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=3074 ''Thomas Jefferson's Flower Garden at Monticello''], 3rd ed. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986), 58.</ref>
-'''Cultural Information:''' Prefers full sun to light shade and well-drained neutral to alkaline soil+China Pinks is a summer flowering annual or short-lived perennial with large single flowers with fringed petals in colorful patterns of pink and crimson to white shades.
-'''USDA Zones:''' 7 through 10+[[Image:chinensis4.jpg|thumb|right|Dianthus chinensis]]
- +
-'''Historical Notes:''' This brilliantly colored dianthus blooms throughout the summer. Also known as Indian Pinks, the species was introduced from China and has been cultivated in Europe and America since the early 18th century. [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] first planted “Indian Pinks” at [[Shadwell]], his birthplace, in 1767 and again at Monticello in 1807.<ref>[[Short Title List|Betts, ''Garden Book'']], 4 and 335. [http://www.thomasjeffersonpapers.org/cfm/search.cfm?start=1&hi=on&user=&tag=text&archive=garden&noimages=&query=Pinks&submit=Search Manuscript and transcription] at the Massachusetts Historical Society.</ref>+
- +
-[[Image:chinensis4.jpg|thumb|left|Dianthus chinensis]]+
==Primary Source References<ref>Please note that this list should not be considered comprehensive.</ref>== ==Primary Source References<ref>Please note that this list should not be considered comprehensive.</ref>==
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==Further Sources== ==Further Sources==
 +*Adams, Denise Wiles. [http://tjportal.monticello.org/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=15734 ''Restoring American Gardens: An Encyclopedia of Heirloom Ornamental Plants, 1640-1940.''] Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2004
*Cornett, Peggy. [http://www.twinleaf.org/articles/pinks.html "Pinks, Gilliflowers, & Carnations--The Exalted Flowers."] ''Twinleaf,'' January 1998 *Cornett, Peggy. [http://www.twinleaf.org/articles/pinks.html "Pinks, Gilliflowers, & Carnations--The Exalted Flowers."] ''Twinleaf,'' January 1998
*Seeds available for purchase at [http://monticellostore.stores.yahoo.net/631089.html Monticello Museum Shop] *Seeds available for purchase at [http://monticellostore.stores.yahoo.net/631089.html Monticello Museum Shop]
 +*Stuart, David and James Sutherland. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/15593580 ''Plants from the Past: Old Flowers for New Gardens.''] London: Penguin Books, 1989
*[http://www.monticello.org/chp/index.html Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants] *[http://www.monticello.org/chp/index.html Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants]
[[Category:Annuals (Ornamental)|Pinks, China]] [[Category:Annuals (Ornamental)|Pinks, China]]
 +[[Category:Jefferson-Documented Plants|Pinks, China]]

Current revision

China Pinks or Dianthus chinensis
China Pinks or Dianthus chinensis
Dianthus chinensis
Dianthus chinensis

Common Name: China Pinks, Indian Pinks[1]

Scientific Name: Dianthus chinensis variety

Jefferson first planted “China Pinks” at Shadwell, his birthplace, in 1767 and again at Monticello in 1807.[2] Also known as Indian Pinks, the species was introduced from China and has been cultivated in Europe and America since the early 18th century. (Lady Skipwith and John Bartram mention this plant in the first half of the 18th century.)[3]

Jefferson grew other various types of Dianthus at Monticello in his 1807 Oval Flower Beds. He lists the Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and Sweet William (Dianthus barbatus).[4]

China Pinks is a summer flowering annual or short-lived perennial with large single flowers with fringed petals in colorful patterns of pink and crimson to white shades.

Dianthus chinensis
Dianthus chinensis

Primary Source References[5]

1812 December 1. (Bernard McMahon to Jefferson). "I also do myself the pleasure of enclosing you some superior China Pink and Auricula seeds."[6]

1813 January 11. (Jefferson to Bernard McMahon). "I have too long delayed returning you thanks for your favors of Nov. 24. & Dec. 1. and the hyacinth roots with the seeds of the China pink...which came safely to hand."[7]

Footnotes

  1. This section is based on a Center for Historic Plant Information Sheet.
  2. Betts, Garden Book, 4 and 335. Manuscript and transcription at the Massachusetts Historical Society. See also Edwin M. Betts, Hazlehurst Bolton Perkins, and Peter J. Hatch, Thomas Jefferson's Flower Garden at Monticello, 3rd ed. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986), 59.
  3. Joan Parry Dutton, Plants of Colonial Williamsburg (Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg, 1979), 130-131.
  4. See Edwin M. Betts, Hazlehurst Bolton Perkins, and Peter J. Hatch, Thomas Jefferson's Flower Garden at Monticello, 3rd ed. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986), 58.
  5. Please note that this list should not be considered comprehensive.
  6. Betts, Garden Book, 492. Copy at Library of Congress.
  7. Ibid, 504. Polygraph Copy at Library of Congress.

Further Sources